Traditionally, a birthstone is associated with each month of the year. For example, the birthstone for January is a garnet, while lucky babies born in April get a diamond as their birthstone.
The origin of birthstones is believed to date back to the breastplate of Aaron which contained twelve gemstones representing the twelve tribes of Israel. The current list dates back to 1912 with only one addition since then – the tanzanite was added to December.
There are numerous legends and myths about birthstone healing powers and their therapeutic influence. According to these legends, wearing a gemstone during its assigned month heightened its healing powers. For the full effect, individuals needed to own all twelve and alternate them monthly.
Some charts are slightly different as the one below:
Garnet is the accepted birthstone for the month of January. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the second year of marriage.
When most people think of garnet, they picture the dark red bohemian garnet that was popular in Victorian times. You may be surprised to learn that garnets are found in every colour.Garnets offer enough variety in appearance to suit every taste, as well as an outstanding price range to suit every budget
Legend holds that Noah hung a large garnet in the ark for illumination. It reportedly also gives its wearer guidance in the night, protection from nightmares, and according to the Egyptians, is an antidote for snake bites and food poisoning. It was also thought to have a special affinity with the blood.
Garnets are durable and brilliant and will give years of pleasure.
Amethyst is the recognized birthstone for February and the accepted anniversary gemstone for the sixth year of marriage.
Amethyst is a variety of quartz, and comes in pale lilac to rich, deep purple shades. Ideally, it is a deep medium purple with rose-coloured flashes that give amethyst its beauty and fire.Because of its abundance, it is readily available in all sizes and shapes. It is durable and can be worn every day. Coupled with the folk legend of the Greeks that it will prevent intoxication when worn, it becomes a most desirable gem!
Amethyst was said to have a sobering effect on the wearer-not only those who indulged but on those over-excited by love's passion as well. It has symbolized peace, protection and tranquility. Some say it willprevent baldness and improve the complexion, as well as protect from treason and deceit. Because royalty has always adored the color purple, amethysts abound in the ornaments of ancient Greeks and Egyptians, and in the British Crown Jewels.
It is found mainly in Brazil, Uruguay and Zambia.
Aquamarine is the traditional birthstone for March. It is also the accepted anniversary gem for the 19th year of marriage.
The ideal colour of aquamarine is a refreshing pastel sea blue. Stones with a clear blue colour without green or gray are generally the most valuable.If you are looking for a big, durable gemstone, aqua is readily available in larger sizes and is truly dramatic when cut in rectangular or oval shapes. It is a member of the important beryl family, which also includes emerald.
In ancient times, the stone was said to aid seafarers; thus it is an excellent gift suggestion for sailors or one who takes frequent cruises! To dream of aquamarine signifies the making of new friends; to wear aquamarine earrings brings love and affection. It is a universal symbol of youth, hope and health.
As part of the normal finishing process, some aquamarines are heated to remove traces of yellow.
Diamond is the birthstone for the month of April. Besides being the most popular gemstone for engagement rings, diamond is the accepted anniversary gem for the 10th and 60th years of marriage.
The name "diamond" comes from the Greek word "adamas" meaning unconquerable-suggesting the eternity of love. In fact, diamonds have been the traditional symbol of love since ancient Greece. Discovered about 2,500 years ago in India, the ancients believed they were splinters from the stars, perhaps crystallized lightening or hardened dew drops.
Although diamonds are associated with being a colorless stone, they are occasionally found with a strong, bright color-green, red, pink, blue, canary yellow and amber. These "fancy" colored diamonds are highly-prized.
Occasionally, to improve appearance, diamonds are laser-drilled and, sometimes, a foreign substance is used to fill surface cavities or fractures. Diamonds may also be irradiated and/or heated to induce "fancy" colors.
Emerald is the birthstone for the month of May. It is also the anniversary gemstone for the 20th and 35th years of marriage.
Emerald is one of the most highly-prized of all the gems. The name comes from the Greek "smaragdos" which means green stone. The most prized is pure grass green.
Emeralds are often characterized by a garden of included crystals trapped within, known as the "jardin", because under magnification you will see all sorts of lovely patterns resembling foliage in a garden. A flawless, clear emerald is very rare and is usually found in only small sizes. Small to medium sized stones are often faceted in the "step" or emerald cut.
According to legend, the wearing of emerald not only cured a wide range of ailments, including low I.Q., poor eyesight and infertility, but also enabled the wearer to predict the future.As part of the normal fashioning process, most emeralds are immersed in colorless oil or resin so small voids are not as noticeable.
Emeralds are found mainly in Colombia, Brazil, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Pearl is the birthstone for the month of June. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 3rd and 30th years of marriage.
A pearl is the product of an oyster's defense mechanism. When a foreign irritant is introduced either by man (cultured) or naturally, the oyster immediately surrounds it with layers of a substance called nacre. This forms the exquisite gemstone know as pearl.
Pearls come in a wide range of colours. They should be relatively free from skin blemishes. The more perfectly round the shape the better. The higher the luster, or "orient", the more valuable the specimen. The larger the pearl, the greater the value.Besides the popular round shape, there are stylish mabe (large hemispherical cultured pearls), fresh water (elongated in interesting shapes and colors), and South Sea (large cultured pearls 10mm and up from Australia's and Indonesia's waters), to name a few.
Pearls have been recognized as the emblem of modesty, chastity and purity. They have come to symbolize a happy marriage.
Alexandrite the traditional birthstone for June is a beautiful, but very rare stone. It is very difficult to find natural alexandrite. Most Alexandrites on the market are synthetic or created. Alexandrite rings are very beautiful. If Alexandrite is set in a ring, the wearer can watch the colour change from green to red, mauve or brown in incadescent light.
Alexandrite has been found in Brazil, Madagascar, Myanmar, Russia, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe.Anchor
Moonstone is a translucent stone that has a shimmering phenomenon known as adularescence and comes in various tones of colorless, white, yellow, orange, and gray. It always has a white or blue sheen. It is sometimes used as an alternative by those born in June since it physically resembles some pearls.
Moonstone is found in Brazil, European Alps, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and USA (Pennsylvania and Virginia). Sri Lanka has the highest quality moonstones.
Ruby is the accepted birthstone for July. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 15th and 40th year.
Ruby is known as the "Lord of the Gems" because of its rarity and beauty. Derived from the Latin word "ruber", it simply means red. Ruby, like sapphire, is a variety of corundum and only exists as a true red in colour. The finest colour is a vivid, almost pure spectral red with a very faint undertone of blue, as seen in Burmese rubies which are considered the finest.
The highest quality rubies are said to protect their owners from all kinds of misfortune. A fine ruby assured the owner he would live in harmony with his neighbors. It would protect his stature in life, his home and land. Its protective powers were intensified when set in jewelry, and worn on the left side. Many believed rubies possessed an inner flame which burned eternally.
As part of the customary fashioning process, virtually all rubies are heated to permanently improve their colour and appearance.
The finest rubies emanate from Burma, having been mined there since ancient times. Other sources include Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Tanzania, Cambodia, Afghanistan and India.
Peridot is the accepted birthstone for August. It is also the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 16th year of marriage.
Peridot should be a lively lime green, without a brownish or olive cast.
Peridot is the child of volcanic action. Tiny peridot crystals are sometimes combed from the black sands of Hawaii.
Peridots were favored by pirates, considered powerful amulets against all evil, and when set in gold, were said to protect the wearer from the terrors of the night. They had medicinal uses, too. If fashioned into a chalice from which medicines were drunk, they intensified the effects of the drugs.The peridot is abundant, and is available in larger sizes. It is found in Burma and the U.S.
The most important source of peridot in the world is the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation near Globe, Arizona, where it is mined by native Americans.
Large sizes are mined in Myanmar (Burma) and peridot is also found in China.
Sapphire is the September birthstone as well as the accepted anniversary gem for the 5th and 45th years of marriage.
Sapphire, a variety of corundum, comes in all colours except red (the red variety being known as ruby), but is especially popular in deep blue. Fancy coloured sapphires-including pink, green, orange, and golden yellow-are magnificent when combined in a necklace or bracelet.
Prince Charles chose a blue sapphire for Princess Diana's engagement ring. The stone's durability, combined with its beauty, makes it the perfect alternative for an engagement ring.
Ancient priests and sorcerers honored sapphire above all gems, for this stone enabled them to interpret oracles and foretell the future. Ancients believed the Ten Commandments were written on a sapphire tablet. Marriage partners put great faith in the stone. If its luster dimmed, one knew his or her spouse had been unfaithful. Sapphire refused to shine when worn by the wicked or impure.
As part of the customary fashioning process, virtually all blue, yellow and golden sapphires are heated to permanently produce or intensify their colour.
Sapphire is found in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar (Burma), Kasmir, Australia, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, China and the U.S.
Opal is the October birthstone as well as the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 14th year of marriage.
The well-known Roman naturalist Pliny described opal as "made up of the glories of the most precious gems... the gentler fire of the ruby, the rich purple of the amethyst, the sea-green of the emerald, glittering together..."
White opal has a white or light body colour with flashes of many colours. Black opal has a black, dark blue, dark green or gray body colour with vivid flashes of colour such as red, pink and bright green.
Opal has symbolized hope, innocence and purity through the ages. In the Middle Ages, young, fair-haired girls wore opals in their hair to protect its lovely blond colour. Medieval writers believed opal could render its wearer invisible when the need arose. It was also said to have a beneficial effect on eyesight. It was thought to banish evil spirits and favor children, the theater, amusements, friendships and feelings.
Care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, household chemicals, and extreme temperature changes. To maintain the brilliance of opal, it should be wiped clean with a soft cloth. Do not use a home ultrasonic machine or jewelry cleaner.
Sometimes tourmaline is used as a birthstone for October as it comes in many colours such as blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear - but primarily in pink and green. It also occurs in colour combinations within single stones which accounts for its popularity.
Tourmaline is found in Africa, Brazil, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and USA (California, Connecticut, Maine, New York and Texas).
Topaz is the accepted birthstone for November. Blue topaz is the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 4th year; Imperial topaz for the 23rd year of marriage.
Most people think of topaz as a transparent golden yellow gemstone. However, this gemstone occurs colourless as well as orange-yellow, red, honey-brown (dark sherry), light green, blue and pink.
The name topaz is derived from the Greek word meaning "to shine" and also implies "fire". Orange-red "Imperial" topaz and pink colours are rare and most valuable.
The lore, magic and romance of topaz goes back many thousands of years. It holds the distinction of being the gemstone with the widest range of curative powers. The Greeks felt it gave them strength. In addition, it supposedly cooled tempers, restored sanity, cured asthma, relieved insomnia and even warded off sudden death. Topaz is said to make its wearer invisible in time of emergency. It proved the loyalty of associates by changing colour in the presence of poison.
As part of the normal fashioning process, most brownish to sherry brown topaz are heated to produce a permanent pink colour. Certain types of topaz are irradiated and heated to produce shades of blue.
Topaz is found mainly in Brazil, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and China.
Smoky Quartz or Citrine are often used an alternative to topaz because it appears in many of the same colours as topaz. Unlike topaz, smoky quartz and citrine are readily available and inexpensive even in large sizes.
Turquoise is the accepted birthstone for December and is the accepted anniversary gemstone for the 11th year of marriage.
Colours in turquoise range from sky blue (most desirable color) to blue green and apple green.
The name means "Turkish stone" because the trade route that brought it to Europe used to come via Turkey. The best qualities are found in northeast Iran (Persian turquoise). However, the United States southwest is now the world leader in production.
The deposits in Sinai were already worked out by 4,000 BC. At that time the stone was used for jewellery, amulets and in the preparation of cosmetics.
During the 16th century turquoise was used as currency by the Southwest Indians. They believed the gemstone could bring spoils to the warrior, animals to the hunter, and happiness and good fortune to all.
Although large quantities of beautiful turquoise which have not been color enhanced are available, today's turquoise is commonly stabilized with plastic to improve its colour and durability. Chalky varieties of turquoise are normally impregnated with oil or wax to enhance colour. This colour change may not be permanent.
Care should be taken to protect it from scratches, sharp blows, hot water, and household chemicals. Do not use a home ultrasonic machine.
Zircon though not mass marketed due to limited availibility is sometimes selected by those who prefer faceted stones. Zircon is a natural stone - not to be confused with Cubic Zirconia which is manmade.
Care: Zircon is somewhat soft so avoid scratches and sharp blows. Avoid hot water and household chemicals. Zircon will have more wear on its facets than diamond. Zircon is imitated by colorless glass and synthetic spinel.
Zircon is found in Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, France, Myanmar, Nigeria, Sri Lanka and Tanzani
Henry Platt, former president of Tiffany & Co., described tanzanite's discovery in 1967 as THE most important gemstone find in 2000 years! This single 5-mile strip of land in Tanzania remains the only commercially viable source of this stone that has become one of the world's most sought-after and admired gems. Tanzanite is a relatively new gemstone in the world of gemology and jewellery, and though its history is brief, it is no less illustrious than many ancient gems. Since its discovery, tanzanite has sold for as little as $20 per carat and as much as $1,000 or more per carat for gem-quality, finely colored stones. That price may seem like a bargain in a few years, as tanzanite is a single-source gemstone that is a thousand times rarer than diamond, and is only gaining popularity.
Tanzanites are typically blue or violet-blue, but they can also be rare greenish and greenish-blue shades. Tanzanite is a highly pleochroic gem, meaning it can appear blue from one angle and violet or violetish-blue from another. Vanadium is the main colouring agent required to produce the rich blue-violet colours that are so highly prized in tanzanite.
Tanzanite's colour may be manipulated by cutting the crystal on one of two axes. Bluer stones are cut on the shorter axis and generally do not provide as high a yield. Consequently, intense blue tanzanite is more rare and costs slightly more than violet-blue tanzanite.